Questions 57 to 61 are based on the followingpassage.
Willthereever be anotherEinstein? This is the undercurrent of conversation at Einsteinmemorialmeetingsthroughout the year. A new Einsteinwillemerge, scientists say. But it may take a longtime. After all, morethan 200 yearsseparatedEinsteinfrom his nearestrival, IsaacNewton.
Manyphysicists say the nextEinsteinhasn’t beenborn yet, or is a baby now. That’s because the quest for a unifiedtheorythatwouldaccount for all the forces of nature has pushedcurrentmathematics to its limits. New mathmust be createdbefore the problem can be solved.
But researchers say there are manyotherfactorsworkingagainstanotherEinsteinemerginganytimesoon.
For one thing, physics is a muchdifferentfieldtoday. In Einstein’s day, therewereonly a few thousandphysicistsworldwide, and the theoreticians who couldintellectuallyrivalEinsteinprobablywould fit into a streetcarwithseats to spare.
Education is different, too. One crucialaspect of Einstein’s trainingthat is overlooked is the years of philosophy he read as a teenager—Kant, Schopenhauer and Spinoza, amongothers. It taught him how to thinkindependently and abstractlyaboutspace and time, and it wasn’t longbefore he became a philosopherhimself.
“The independencecreated by philosophicalinsight is—in my opinion—the mark of distinctionbetween a mereartisan (工匠) or specialist and a realseekeraftertruth,” Einsteinwrote in 1944.
And he was an accomplishedmusician. The interplaybetweenmusic and math is wellknown. Einsteinwouldfuriouslyplay his violin as a way to thinkthrough a knottyphysicsproblem.
Today, universitieshaveproducedmillions of physicists. Therearen’t manyjobs in science for them, so they go to WallStreet and SiliconValley to applytheiranalyticalskills to morepractical—and rewarding—efforts.
“Maybethere is an Einstein out theretoday,” saidColumbiaUniversityphysicistBrianGreene, “but it would be a lot harder for him to be heard.”
EspeciallyconsideringwhatEinstein was proposing.
“The actualfabric of space and timecurving? My God, what an idea!” Greenesaid at a recentgathering at the AspenInstitute. “It takes a certaintype of person who willbang his headagainst the wallbecause you believe you’ll find the solution.”
Perhaps the bestexamples are the fivescientificpapersEinsteinwrote in his “miracleyear” of 1905. These “thoughtexperiments” werepages of calculationssigned and submitted to the prestigiousjournalAnnalen der Physik by a virtualunknown. Therewere no footnotes or citations.
Whatmighthappen to such a submissiontoday?
“We all get paperslikethose in the mail,” Greenesaid. “We put them in the junkfile.”
注意： 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。 【題組】59. Whatdoes the authortell us aboutphysiciststoday?
(A)Theytend to neglecttraining in analyticalskills.
(B) They are verygood at solvingpracticalproblems.
(C) Theyattachgreatimportance to publishingacademicpapers.
(D)Theyoften go intofieldsyieldinggreaterfinancialbenefits.