__31__ had the birth of a baby caused a father so much disappointment and rage. When Elizabeth was born,
the __32__ Henry VIII, King of England, wanted no part of her. He had, after all, divorced his first wife, broken
relations with the Catholic Church, and married Anne Boleyn for the sake of __33__ was supposed to be a male
heir. Boleyn, like Henry’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to give him a son. Afterwards, Henry continued
to remarry. Elizabeth, who doubtlessly __34__ marriage with betrayal and danger, announced that she would
When Elizabeth took the throne, all she wanted was __35__to work immediately. However, everyone else
wanted her to marry right away. Her sister’s widower, now King Philip II of Spain, was the first to offer marriage,
but he was __36__ the last. Through the course of her reign, negotiations were conducted with Erik of Sweden
and the Hapsburg Archduke Charles, but ultimately, the Queen decided no.
The religious turmoil of the times shaped the Queen’s life. Elizabeth was a religious Protestant who
regarded convoluted discussions of dogma as beside the point. Different from her relatives, she was free of any
__37__. On July 19, 1588, a(n) __38__ threat arose from abroad: Philip II of Spain intended to attack England.
Therefore, Elizabeth turned England’s minuscule navy into a fearsome fighting force, equipping it with a lighter
and faster fleet than __39__. In the __40__ battle, England lost 100 men, while Spain lost 20,000. It was a
humiliating defeat for Spain.
【題組】37. (A) inauguration (B) remnant (C) zealotry (D) sediment