The response of most animals when suddenly faced with a predator is to flee. Natural selection has acted in a variety of ways in different species to enhance the efficacy of the behaviors, known as "flight behaviors" or escape behaviors that are used by prey in
Line fleeing predators: Perhaps the most direct adaptation is enhanced flight speed and agility.
5 Adaptations for speed. However, are likely to require sacrifices biter attributes, so we might expect only some species to adopt a simple fast flight strategy. Another way of enhancing the effectiveness of flight is to move in an erratic and unpredictable way. Many species, like ptarmigans, snipes, and various antelopes and gazelles, flee from predators in a characteristic zigzag fashion. Rapid unexpected changes in flight direction make it
10 difficult for a predator to track prey. In some species, like the European hare, erratic
zigzag flight might be more effective in the presence of predators that aie faster than they are and straight flight more effective against predators that are slower. One observation lhat supports this suggestion is the recorded tendency for slow-flying black-headed gulls, which are normally able to escape predators by means of direct flight, to show frequent
15 changes in flight direction when they spot a peregrine falcon (peregrines are adept at capturing flying birds).
A quite different way of enhancing escape by flight is to USB so-called "flash" behavior. Here, the alarmed prey flees for a short distance and then "freezes." Some predators are unexcited by immobile prey, and a startling flash of activity followed
20 by immobility may confuse them. "Flash" behavior is used in particular by frogs and orthopteran insects, which make conspicuous jumps and then sit immobile. In some species, "flash" behavior is enhanced by the display of bright body markings. Good examples of insects with colorful markings are the red and yellow underwing moths. At rest, both species are a cryptic brown color. When they fly, however, brightly colored
25 hind wings are exposed, which render the moths highly conspicuous. Similarly, some frogs and lizards have brightly colored patches or frills that may serve a 'flash" function when they move quickly, Some species even appear to possess "flash" sounds. The loud buzzing and clicking noises made by some grasshoppers when they jump may serve to emphasize the movement.
【題組】31. The description of the prey's movement as "zigzag" in line 9 suggests that the movement is
【題組】38. The hind wings of red and yellow underwing moths function in a way that is most similar to
(A) the hind wings of peregrine falcons
(B) the zigzag flight of European hares
(C) the colored patches on frogs
(D) the clicking of grasshoppers
The tern “art deco” has come to encompass three distinct but related design trends
of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The first was what is frequently referred to as “zigzag
moderne” –the exotically ornamental style of such skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building
in New York City and related structures such as the Paramount Theater in Oakland,
5) California The word “zigzag” alludes to the geometric and stylized ornamentation of
zigzags, angular patterns, abstracted plant and animal motifs, sunbursts, astrological
imagery, formalized fountains, and related themes that were applied in mosaic relief.
and mural form to the exterior and interior of the buildings. Many of these buildings were
shaped in the ziggurat form, a design resembling an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower
10) that recedes in progressively smaller stages to the summit, creating a staircase-like effect.
The second manifestation of art deco was the 1930’s streamlined moderne” style—a
Futuristic-looking aerodynamic style of rounded corners and horizontal bands known as
“speed stripes.” In architecture, these elements were frequently accompanied by round
windows, extensive use of glass block, and flat rooftops.
15) The third style, referred to as cither “ international stripped classicism,” or simply
“ classical moderne,” also came to the forefront during the Depression, a period of severe
economic difficult in the 1930’s. This was amore conservative style, blending a
simplified modernistic style with a more austere form of geometric and stylized relief
sculpture and other ornament, including interior murals. May buildings in this style
20) were erected nationwide through government programs during the Depression .
Although art deco in its many forms was largely perceived as thoroughly modern,
it was strongly influenced by the decorative arts movements that immediately preceded
it. For example, like “art nouveau” (1890-1910), art deco also used plant motifs, but
regularized the forms into abstracted repetitive patterns rather than presenting them as
25) flowing, asymmetrical foliage, Like the Viennese craftspeople of the Wiener Werkstatte,
art deco designers worked with exotic materials, geometricized shapes, and colorfully
ornate patterns. Furthermore, like the artisans of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England
and the United States, art deep practitioners considered it their mission to transform the
domestic environment through well-designed furniture and household accessories.
【題組】48. According to the passage, a building having an especially ornate appearance would most probably have been designed in the style of
(A) zigzag moderne
(B) streamlined moderne
(C) classical moderne
(D) the Arts and Crafts Movement