The response of mostanimalswhensuddenlyfacedwith a predator is to flee. Naturalselection has acted in a variety of ways in differentspecies to enhance the efficacy of the behaviors, known as "flightbehaviors" or escapebehaviorsthat are used by prey in
Linefleeingpredators: Perhaps the mostdirectadaptation is enhancedflightspeed and agility.
5 Adaptations for speed. However, are likely to requiresacrificesbiterattributes, so we mightexpectonlysomespecies to adopt a simplefastflightstrategy. Another way of enhancing the effectiveness of flight is to move in an erratic and unpredictable way. Manyspecies, likeptarmigans, snipes, and variousantelopes and gazelles, fleefrompredators in a characteristiczigzagfashion. Rapidunexpectedchanges in flightdirectionmake it
10 difficult for a predator to trackprey. In somespecies, like the Europeanhare, erraticzigzagflightmight be moreeffective in the presence of predatorsthat aie fasterthanthey are and straightflightmoreeffectiveagainstpredatorsthat are slower. One observationlhatsupportsthissuggestion is the recordedtendency for slow-flyingblack-headedgulls, which are normallyable to escapepredators by means of directflight, to showfrequent
15 changes in flightdirectionwhentheyspot a peregrinefalcon (peregrines are adept at capturingflyingbirds).
A quitedifferent way of enhancingescape by flight is to USB so-called "flash" behavior. Here, the alarmedpreyflees for a shortdistance and then "freezes." Somepredators are unexcited by immobileprey, and a startlingflash of activityfollowed
20 by immobility may confusethem. "Flash" behavior is used in particular by frogs and orthopteraninsects, whichmakeconspicuousjumps and then sit immobile. In somespecies, "flash" behavior is enhanced by the display of brightbodymarkings. Goodexamples of insectswithcolorfulmarkings are the red and yellowunderwingmoths. At rest, bothspecies are a crypticbrowncolor. Whenthey fly, however, brightlycolored
25 hindwings are exposed, whichrender the mothshighlyconspicuous. Similarly, somefrogs and lizardshavebrightlycoloredpatches or frillsthat may serve a 'flash" functionwhentheymovequickly, Somespeciesevenappear to possess "flash" sounds. The loudbuzzing and clickingnoisesmade by somegrasshopperswhentheyjump may serve to emphasize the movement.
【題組】31. The description of the prey's movement as "zigzag" in line 9 suggeststhat the movement is
(A) reliable (B) fast (C) constant (D) unpredictable
【題組】38. The hindwings of red and yellowunderwingmothsfunction in a way that is mostsimilar to
(A) the hindwings of peregrinefalcons (B) the zigzagflight of Europeanhares (C) the coloredpatches on frogs (D) the clicking of grasshoppers
The tern “art deco” has come to encompassthreedistinct but relateddesigntrends
of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The first was what is frequentlyreferred to as “zigzagmoderne” –the exoticallyornamentalstyle of suchskyscrapers as the ChryslerBuilding
in New YorkCity and relatedstructuressuch as the ParamountTheater in Oakland,
5) California The word “zigzag” alludes to the geometric and stylizedornamentation of
zigzags, angularpatterns, abstractedplant and animalmotifs, sunbursts, astrologicalimagery, formalizedfountains, and relatedthemesthatwereapplied in mosaicrelief.
and muralform to the exterior and interior of the buildings. Many of thesebuildingswereshaped in the zigguratform, a designresembling an ancientMesopotamiantempletower
10) thatrecedes in progressivelysmallerstages to the summit, creating a staircase-likeeffect.
The secondmanifestation of art deco was the 1930’s streamlinedmoderne” style—a
Futuristic-lookingaerodynamicstyle of roundedcorners and horizontalbandsknown as
“speedstripes.” In architecture, theseelementswerefrequentlyaccompanied by roundwindows, extensive use of glassblock, and flatrooftops.
15) The thirdstyle, referred to as cither “ internationalstrippedclassicism,” or simply
“ classicalmoderne,” alsocame to the forefrontduring the Depression, a period of severeeconomicdifficult in the 1930’s. This was amoreconservativestyle, blending a
simplifiedmodernisticstylewith a moreaustereform of geometric and stylizedreliefsculpture and otherornament, includinginteriormurals. May buildings in thisstyle
20) wereerectednationwidethroughgovernmentprogramsduring the Depression .
Although art deco in its manyforms was largelyperceived as thoroughlymodern,
it was stronglyinfluenced by the decorativeartsmovementsthatimmediatelypreceded
it. For example, like “art nouveau” (1890-1910), art decoalsousedplantmotifs, but
regularized the formsintoabstractedrepetitivepatternsratherthanpresentingthem as
25) flowing, asymmetricalfoliage, Like the Viennesecraftspeople of the WienerWerkstatte,
art decodesignersworkedwithexoticmaterials, geometricizedshapes, and colorfullyornatepatterns. Furthermore, like the artisans of the Arts and CraftsMovement in England
and the UnitedStates, art deeppractitionersconsidered it theirmission to transform the
domesticenvironmentthroughwell-designedfurniture and householdaccessories.
【題組】48. According to the passage, a buildinghaving an especiallyornateappearancewouldmostprobablyhavebeendesigned in the style of
(A) zigzagmoderne (B) streamlinedmoderne (C) classicalmoderne (D) the Arts and CraftsMovement