Yiting Lin>试卷(2015/04/27)

TOEFL(Test of English as a Foreign Language)題庫 下載題庫

2001年5月托福閱讀#20934 

选择:50题,非选:0题
立即測驗 
我要補題 回報試卷錯誤 試卷下載
1.Questions 1-10 In the early 1800’s, over 80 percent of the United States labor force was engaged in agriculture. Sophisticated technology and machinery were virtually nonexistent. People who lived in the cities and were not directly involved in trade often participated Line in small cottage industries making handcrafted goods. Others cured meats, silversmiths, candle 5) or otherwise produced needed goods and commodities. Blacksmiths, silversmiths, candle makers, and other artisans worked in their homes or barns, relying on help of family Perhaps no single phenomenon brought more widespread and lasting change to the United States society than the rise of industrialization. Industrial growth hinged on several 10) economic factors. First, industry requires an abundance of natural resources, especially coal, iron ore, water, petroleum, and timber-all readily available on the North American continent. Second, factories demand a large labor supply. Between the 1870’s and the First World War (1914-1918), approximately 23 million immigrants streamed to the United States, settled in cities, and went to work in factories and mines. They also helped 15)build the vast network of canals and railroads that crisscrossed the continent and linked important trade centers essential to industrial growth. Factories also offered a reprieve from the backbreaking work and financial unpredictability associated with farming. Many adults, poor and disillusioned with farm life, were lured to the cities by promises of steady employment, regular paychecks, 20) increased access to goods and services, and expanded social opportunities. Others were pushed there when new technologies made their labor cheap or expendable; inventions such as steel plows and mechanized harvesters allowed one farmhand to perform work that previously had required several, thus making farming capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive. 25) The United States economy underwent a massive transition and the nature of work was permanently altered. Whereas cottage industries relied on a few highly skilled craft workers who slowly and carefully converted raw materials into finished products from start to finish, factories relied on specialization. While factory work was less creative and more monotonous, it was also more efficient and allowed mass production of goods at less expense.
【題組】 1.What aspect of life in the United States does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy
(B) The inventions that transformed life in the nineteenth century
(C) The problems associated with the earliest factories
(D) The difficulty of farm life in the nineteenth century
2.【題組】2. Blacksmiths, silversmiths, and candle makers are mentioned in lines 5-6 as examples of artisans who
(A) maintained their businesses at home
(B) were eventually able to use sophisticated technology
(C) produced unusual goods and commodities
(D) would employ only family members
3.【題組】3. The phrase “hinged on” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) recovered from
(B) depended on
(C) started on
(D) contributed to
4.【題組】4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a reason for the industrial growth that occurred in the United States before 1914?
(A)The availability of natural resources found only in the United States
(B) The decrease in number of farms resulting from technological advances
(C) The replacement of canals and railroads by other forms of transportation
(D) The availability of a large immigrant work force
5.【題組】5. The word “lured” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A) attracted
(B) assigned
(C) restricted
(D) attached
6.【題組】6. The word “Others” in line 20 refers to other
(A) adults
(B) promises
(C) goods and services
(D) social opportunities
7.【題組】7.The word “expendable” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
(A) nonproductive
(B) unacceptable
(C) nonessential
(D) unprofitable
8.【題組】8. It can be inferred from the passage that industrialization affected farming in that industrialization
(A) increased the price of farm products
(B) limited the need for new farm machinery
(C) created new and interesting jobs on farms
(D) reduced the number of people willing to do farm work
9.【題組】9.What does the author mean when stating that certain inventions made farming “capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive” (lines 23-24)?
(A) Workers had to be trained to operate the new machines.
(B) Mechanized farming required more capital and fewer laborers.
(C) The new inventions were not helpful for all farming activities.
(D) Human labor could still accomplish as much work as the first machines.
10.【題組】10. According to the passage, factory workers differed from craft workers in that factory workers
(A) were required to be more creative
(B) worked extensively with raw materials
(C) changed jobs frequently
(D) specialized in one aspect of the finished product only
11.Question 11-20 Molting is one of the most involved processes of a bird’s annual life cycle. Notwithstanding preening and constant care, the marvelously intricate structure of a bird’s Feather inevitably wears out. All adult birds molt their feathers at least once a year, and Line upon close observation, one can recognize the frayed, ragged appearance of feathers that 5) are nearing the end of their useful life. Two distinct processes are involved in molting. The first step is when the old, worn feather is dropped, or shed. The second is when a new feather grows in its place. When each feather has been shed and replaced, then the molt can be said to be complete. This, however, is an abstraction that often does not happen: incomplete, overlapping, and arrested molts are quite common. 10) Molt requires that a bird find and process enough protein to rebuild approximately one-third of its body weight. It is not surprising that a bird in heavy molt often seems listless and unwell. But far from being random, molt is controlled by strong evolutionary forces that have established an optimal time and duration. Generally, molt occurs at the time of least stress on the bird. Many songbirds, for instance, molt in late summer, when 15) the hard work of breeding is done but the weather is still warm and food still plentiful. This is why the woods in late summer often seem so quiet, when compared with the Exuberant choruses of spring. Molt of the flight feathers is the most highly organized part of the process. Some species, for example, begin by dropping the outermost primary feathers on each side (to retain 20) balance in the air) and wait until the replacement feathers are about one-third grown before shedding the next outermost, and so on. Others always start with the innermost primary feathers and work outward. Yet other species begin in the middle and work outward on both weeks while the replacement feathers grow.
【題組】11.The passage mainly discusses how
(A) birds prepare for breeding
(B) bird feathers differ from species
(C) birds shed and replace their feathers
(D) birds are affected by seasonal changes
12.【題組】12.The word “Notwithstanding” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) despite
(B) because of
(C) instead of
(D) regarding
13.【題組】13.The word “intricate” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) regular
(B) complex
(C) interesting
(D) important
14.【題組】14.The word “random” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) unfortunate
(B) unusual
(C) unobservable
(D) unpredictable
15.【題組】15.The word “optimal” in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) slow
(B) frequent
(C) best
(D) early
16.【題組】16.Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason that songbirds molt in the late summer?
(A) Fewer predators are in the woods.
(B) The weathers is still warm.
(C) The songbirds have finished breeding.
(D) Food is still available.
17.【題組】17. Some birds that are molting maintain balance during flight by
(A) constantly preening and caring for their remaining feathers
(B) dropping flight feathers on both sides at the same time
(C) adjusting the angle of their flight to compensate for lost feathers
(D) only losing one-third of their feathers
18.【題組】18.The word “Others” in line 21 refers to
(A) ducks
(B) sides
(C) species
(D) flight feathers
19.【題組】19.The author discusses ducks in order to provide an example of birds that
(A) grow replacement feathers that are very long
(B) shed all their wing feathers at one time
(C) keep their innermost feathers
(D) shed their outermost feathers first
20.【題組】20. It can inferred from the discussion about ducks that the molting of their flight feathers takes.
(A) a year
(B) a season
(C) several months
(D) a few weeks
21.Question 21-30 The Harlem Renaissance, a movement of the 1920’s, marked the twentieth century’s first period of intense activity by African Americans in the field of literature, art, and music in the United States. The philosophy of the movement combined realism, ethnic Line consciousness, and Americanism. Encouraged by the example of certain Americans 5) of European descent such as Thomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks, who had included persons of African descent in their paintings as serious studies rather than as trivial or sentimental stereotypes, African American artists of this period set about creating a new portrayal of themselves and their lives in the United States. As they began to strive for social and cultural independence. Their attitudes toward themselves changed, 10) and, to some extent, other segments of American society began to change their attitudes toward them. Thus, thought the Harlem Renaissance was a short-lived movement, its impact on American art and culture continues to the present. The district in New York City know as Harlem was the capital of the movement. In 1925 an issue of Survey Graphic magazine devoted exclusively to Harlem and edited 15) by philosopher Alain Locke became the manifesto of the African American artistic movement. Locke strongly suggested that individuals, while accepting their Americanism, take pride in their African ancestral arts and urged artists to look to Africa for substance and inspiration. Far from advocating a withdrawal from American culture, as did some of his contemporaries, Locke recommended a cultural pluralism through which artists could 20) enrich the culture of America. African Americans were urged by Locke to be collaborators and participators with other Americans in art, literature, and music; and at the same time to preserve, enhance, and promote their own cultural heritage. Artists and intellectuals from many parts of the United States and the Caribbean had Been attracted to Harlem by the pulse and beat of its unique and dynamic culture. From 25) this unity created by the convergence of artists from various social and geographical backgrounds came a new spirit, which, particularly in densely populated Harlem, was to result in greater group awareness and self-determination. African American graphic artists took their place beside the poets and writers of the Harlem Renaissance and carried on efforts to increase and promote the visual arts.
【題組】21.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) African American paintings in the 1920’s
(B) An arts movement of the 1920’s
(C) The influence of Alain Locke on African American art
(D) Some ways in which African culture inspired American literature, art and music
22.【題組】22. According to the passage, Tomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks were important because of
(A) the philosophical contributions they made to the Harlem Renaissance
(B) their development of a new style of African American art
(C) they way in which they depicted African Americans in their paintings
(D) their independence from European artistic traditions
23.【題組】23. The word “them” in line 11 refers to
(A) Americans of European descent
(B) paintings
(C) African American artists
(D) attitudes
24.【題組】24. According to the passage, African American artists of the 1920’s differed from earlier African American artists in terms of their feelings about
(A) themselves
(B) other artists
(C) their impact on American art
(D) stereotypes
25.【題組】25.The word “urged” in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) prepared
(B) defined
(C) permitted
(D) encouraged
26.【題組】26. Alain Locke believed all of the following to be important to the African American artistic movement EXCEPT
(A) pride in African art
(B) cultural pluralism
(C) collaboration with other artists
(D) withdrawal from American culture
27.【題組】27. In mentioning “the pulse and beat” (line24) of Harlem during the 1920’s, the author is characterizing the district as one that
(A) depended greatly on its interaction with other parts of the city
(B) grew economically in a short period of time
(C) was an exciting place to be
(D) was in danger of losing population
28.【題組】28.The word “convergence” in line 25 is closest in meaning to
(A) gathering
(B) promotion
(C) expression
(D) influence
29.【題組】29. According to the passage, all of the following were true of Harlem in the 1920’s EXCEPT:
(A) Some Caribbean artists and intellectuals lived there.
(B) It attracted people from various regions of United States.
(C) It was one of the most expensive neighborhoods in New York City.
(D) It was a unique cultural center.
30.【題組】30.The phrase “carried on” in line 29 is closest in meaning to
(A) continued
(B) praised
(C) transformed
(D) connected
31.Questions 31-40 Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its Evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the 1960’s but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced Line to the work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists, 5) Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen. Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these is imprinting, the carly following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place 10) during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is not present during this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, young goslings may imprint on it instead. Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child Development” the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is 15) biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably stimulating environment. Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether complex congnitive and social behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods. for example, if children are deprived of adequate food or physical and social stimulation during the early years of life, will their intelligence be permanently impaired? If language 20) is not mastered during the preschool years, is the child’s capacity to acquire it reduced? Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby applied ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and its parents. He argued that attachment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling, grasping, and crying, are built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach, 25) care for, and interact with the baby. By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure that the baby will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the stimulation and affection necessary for healthy growth. The development of attachment in human infants is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep affectional tie between parent and baby.
【題組】31.What was Darwin’s contribution to ethology?
(A) Darwin improved on the original principles of ethology.
(B) Darwin was the professor who taught Lorenz and Tinbergen.
(C) Darwin’s work provided the basis for ethology.
(D) Darwin was the first person to apply ethological theory to children.
32.【題組】32.The word “diverse” in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(A) small
(B) varied
(C) wild
(D) particular
33.【題組】33.The word “ensures” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) guarantees
(B) proves
(C) teaches
(D) assumes
34.【題組】34. According to the passage, if a mother goose is not present during the time period when imprinting takes place, which of the following will most likely occur?
(A) The gosling will not imprint on any object.
(B) The gosling may not find a mate when it matures.
(C) The mother will later imprint on the gosling.
(D) The gosling may imprint on another object.
35.【題組】35.The word “it” in line 12 refers to
(A) development
(B) goose
(C) time
(D) object
36.【題組】36.The word “suitably” in line 15 is closest in meaning to
(A) willingly
(B) moderately
(C) appropriately
(D) emotionally
37.【題組】37.The author mentions all of the following as attachment behaviors of human infants EXCEPT
(A) grasping
(B) crying
(C) eating
(D) smiling
38.【題組】38.According to the passage, attachment behaviors of infants are intended to
(A) get the physical, emotional and social needs of the infant met
(B) allow the infant to become imprinted on objects that resemble the parent
(C) provide the infant with a means of self-stimulation
(D) prepare the infant to cope with separation
39.【題組】39.The phrase “affectional tie” in line 29 is closest in meaning to
(A) cognitive development
(B) emotional attachment
(C) psychological need
(D) behavioral change
40.【題組】40. It can be inferred from the passage that ethological theory assumes that
(A) to learn about human behavior only human subjects should be studied
(B) failure to imprint has no influence on inteligence
(C) the notion of critical periods applies only to animals
(D) there are similarities between animal and human behavior
41.Questions 41-50 There are only a few clues in the rock record about climate in the Proterozoic con. Much of our information about climate in the more recent periods of geologic history comes from the fossil record, because we have a reasonably good understanding of Line the types of environment in which many fossil organisms flourished. The scarce fossils 5) of the Proterozoic, mostly single-celled bacteria, provide little evidence in this regard. However, the rocks themselves do include the earliest evidence for glaciation, probably a global ice age. The inference that some types of sedimentary rocks are the result of glacial activity is based on the principle of uniformitarianism, which posits that natural processes now 10) at work on and within the Earth operated in the same manner in the distant past. The deposits associated with present-day glaciers have been well studied, and some of their characteristics are quite distinctive. In 2.3-billion-year-old rocks in Canada near Lake Huron (dating from the early part of the Proterozoic age), there are thin laminae of fine-grained sediments that resemble varves, the annual layers of sediment deposited in 15) glacial lakes. Typically, present-day varves show two-layered annual cycle, one layer corresponding to the rapid ice melting and sediment transport of the summer season, and the other, finer-grained, layer corresponding to slower winter deposition. Although it is not easy to discern such details in the Proterozoic examples, they are almost certainly glacial varves. These fine-grained, layered sediments even contain occasional large 20) pebbles or “dropstones,” a characteristic feature of glacial environments where coarse material is sometimes carried on floating ice and dropped far from its source, into otherwise very fine grained sediment. Glacial sediments of about the same age as those in Canada have been found in other parts of North America and in Africa, India, and Europe. This indicates that the glaciation was global, and that for a period of time in 25) the early Proterozoic the Earth was gripped in an ice age. Following the early Proterozoic glaciation, however, the climate appears to have Been fairly benign for a very long time. There is no evidence for glaciation for the Next 1.5 billion years or so. Then, suddenly, the rock record indicates a series of Glacial episodes between about 850 and 600 million year ago, near the end of the Proterozoic con.
【題組】41.Which of the following does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How patterns in rock layers have been used to construct theories about the climate of the Proterozoic age
(B) What some rare fossils indicate about glacial conditions during the late Proterozoic age
(C) The varying characteristics of Proterozoic glacial varves in different parts of the world
(D) The number of glacial episodes that the Earth has experienced since the Proterozoic age
42.【題組】42. According to the passage, the fossil record of the Proterozoic con is
(A) highly regarded because it preserves the remains of many kinds of organisms
(B) less informative than the fossil record of more recent periods
(C) very difficult to interpret due to damage from bacteria
(D) more useful to researchers than other aspects of the rock record
43.【題組】43.The word “scarce” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) ancient
(B) tiny
(C) available
(D) rare
44.【題組】44. It can be inferred from the passage that the principle of uniformitarianism indicates that
(A) similar conditions produce similar rock formations
(B) rock layers in a given region remain undisturbed over time
(C) different kinds of sedimentary rocks may
(D) each continent has its own distinctive pattern of sediment layers
45.【題組】45. The word “resemble” in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) result from
(B) penetrate
(C) look like
(D) replace have similar origins
46.【題組】46. According to the passage, the layers in varves are primarily formed by
(A) fossilized bacteria
(B) pieces of ancient dropstones
(C) a combination of ancient and recent sediments
(D) annual cycles of sediment transport and deposition
47.【題組】47. The phrase “the other” in line 17 refers to another
(A) annual cycle
(B) glacial lake
(C) layer of sediment
(D) season
48.【題組】48. According to the passage, the presence of dropstones indicates that
(A) the glacial environment has been unusually server
(B) the fine-grained sediment has built up very slowly
(C) there has been a global ice age
(D) coarse rock material has been carried great distances
49.【題組】49. Why does the author mention Canada, North America, Africa, India, and Europe in lines 23-24?
(A) To demonstrate the global spread of dropstones
(B) To explain the principles of varve formation
(C) To provide evidence for the theory that there was a global ice age in the early Proterozoic eon
(D) To illustrate the varied climatic changes of the Proterozoic con in different parts of the globe
50.【題組】50. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
(A) fossil record (line 3)
(B) laminae (line 13)
(C) varves (line14)
(D) glacial episodes (line 29)