21.Everyone likes things that are free, and businesses often give things for free to customers as a way of getting more people to pay attention to their products.
Ariely, a scientist from MIT, did an experiment on what people would do when _21_ things that were free. He _22_ a group of students two kinds of chocolates: the good one for 15 cents each and the poor one for 1 cent each. The good chocolate was worth ＄1,00, so 15 cents was very cheap, _23_ the poor quality chocolate was worth 5 cents, so _24_ it for 1 cent wasn’t very cheap.
Most people chose the high quality chocolate for 115 cents. That’s not a _25_. But then Ariely lowered the _26_ of both pieces of chocolate by 1 cent. If people were _27_ correctly, then they should _28_ choose the good quality chocolate. But that _29_ what happened. Most people chose the free chocolate. This doesn’t make sense in our _30_ way of understanding economic behavior (经济行为).
What is happening here? Ariely _31_ that people want to get a good bargain, but they also want to reduce risk (风险). That is, they want to _32_ the chance of making a _33_. If you pay 14 cents for a piece of chocolate, and then you don’t _34_ like it, when you have it, you have lost 14 cents. But when something is free and you don’t like it, you haven’t lost anything. People would _35__ not to take a risk over getting a better bargain. 【題組】21. (A) facing (B) buying (C) giving (D) treating
36.Probably no other musical instrument (乐器) is as popular around the world as the guitar (吉他). Almost every kind of music needs a guitar. Country and western music would not be the same without a guitar. The Spanish music called flamenco could not exist without a guitar. The sound of American blues music would not be the same without the sad cry of the guitar. And rock and roll music would almost be impossible without this instrument.
People don not agree about where the guitar was first played, but most agree it is very old. Some say an instrument very much like a guitar was played in Egypt more than one thousand years ago. Some other say that an old form of the modern guitar was brought to Spain from Persian sometime in the 12th century. The guitar continued to develop in Spain. In the 1700s it became similar to the instrument we know today.
Many famous musicians played the instrument. The famous musician Niccolo Paganinni played and wrote music for the guitar in the early 1800s. Franz Schubert used the guitar to write some of his famous works. In modern times Andres Segovia helped make the instrument extremely popular.
One kind of music for the guitar developed in the southern area of Spain called Adalusia. It will always be strongly connected with the Spanish guitar. 【題組】36.
What is discussed about the guitar in Paragraph 1?
(A) Its history in America. (B) Its value in the music world.
(C) Its importance for music lovers. (D) Its use in musical performance.
40.Eight years ago, officials in Chicago, Illinois, decided to replace the black roof on the city government building with a planted garden. The aim was to reduce energy costs, improve air quality and control the rainwater entering the city’s waste system (系统). Green roofs also help reduce a problem called urban heat islands (城市热岛现象). During hot weather, the building’s roof could reach temperature of up 76℃. With the garden, the temperature of the roof area was reduced by at least 30℃. Workers planted over 150 kinds of plants that could stand bad weather. Now, the area is cooler, the building requires less energy to keep cool, and the roof looks nice. Chicago also offers money to help people pay for building their own green roofs.
About in five years ago, officials in Thane, India, decided to reduce the city’s depending on power from coal. The city often experiences lack of power because of the large numbers of people using electricity. Officials decided to save energy by putting water heaters (热水器) powered by the sun on top of the city’s main hospital. The hospital saved thousands of dollars in energy costs every year. Officials then began building this kind of water heater around the city.
China has announced plans to build a city called Dongtan. The company designing the city says it will produce its energy from the wind, sun and waste. The aim is for the city to be an example to the rest of China.
What did the officials in Chicago decide to do?
(A) To grow plants on the roof of the government building.
(B) To make use of the rainwater in the city’s waste system.
(C) To improve the air quality of the city greatly.
(D) To build another government building.
41.【題組】41. What problem does Thane have according to the text?
(A) The city doesn’t have enough electricity for its people.
(B) The city’s main hospital lacks money for energy costs.
(C) The city needs more water heaters for its people.
(D) The city needs to control its population growth.
42.【題組】42. Why does China plan to build the new city?
(A) To set an example of using clean energy.
(B) To provide energy for the rest of China
(C) To learn how to use new energy forms.
(D) To gain experience in city design.
43.【題組】43. What does the author try to tell the readers about?
(A) Problems in big cities of the world. (B) The rising energy costs in cities.
(C) Different ways of going green. (D) Energy problems in the world.
44.On my way home from work one day in 1994, I stopped at a supermarket for shopping. I was behind two customers. The person checking out was a young mother with her little girl. As the clerk was scanning (扫描) the things she chose, the young lady was carefully counting her money, worried. After the last thing was scanned, the clerk told the young mother the total.
The young mother’s expression turned out to embarrassment (尴尬) as she realized she did not have enough money. She started to see which things to put back, and nervously looked behind her, knowing she was holding up the line. I was smiling and trying to look sympathetic (同情)—I had been in situations where I did not have enough money plenty of times myself. Finally, the young mother gave something back to the clerk, and asked for a new total.
At that moment, the woman in front of me asked the clerk to wait a moment. She took out ＄5 and handed it to the clerk to pay what the young mother was short of. When the clerk tried to give the woman the fifty cents change, she pointed to the little girl and told the clerk to give it to her. The little girl smiled and ran to one of the machines to spend the money. Naturally, the young mother was thankful and said so. The woman smiled and told her she was welcome.
I will never forget the look on that little girl’s face—not when she was given the money, but when she realized that a perfect stranger cared enough to help them. From the way she looked at the woman, you could tell that she learned something valuable that day: Some people do care.
That woman taught me several things with that one little deed. There are many situations in which we can help other people. It doesn’t take much money. A few dollars to someone like me was something quite different to that mother. 【題組】44.
Why was the young mother carefully counting her money?
(A) To know how much would be left after payment.
(B) She got ready to pay for what she had taken.
(C) She was afraid that she didn’t have enough..
(D) To see if she could buy more things.
45.【題組】45. What did the author try to show to the young mother by smiling to her?
(A) He had seen her before.
(B) He was willing to help her.
(C) He was surprised at her embarrassment.
(D) He understood what happened to her.
47.【題組】47. What is the text trying to teach us?
(A) Women and children should be helped.
(B) A little care can bring about great happiness.
(C) There was always people who are in trouble.
(D) A friend in need is a friend indeed.
48.There’s a time to get angry, and it’s best for your child if you do. Let’s say your child hits a playmate with a toy—hard enough to make the other child cry. How can you teach your child to feel sorry so he or she won’t do it again? Researchers say the best way for parents to react (反应) is to show their anger and to let the child know exactly why they are mad.
Many parents believe that it is best to control their feelings and to wait until they’re calm before scolding their children. But the mother or father who explains reasonably to a child, “Peter was crying because you hit him,” is not likely to attract much attention. Young children need to be scolded immediately, and strongly, before they’ll take criticism (批评) to heart.
When your young child does something wrong, scold him or her seriously at once. At the same time be sure to tell the child clearly what he or she has done wrong. An angry reaction without an immediate explanation does little good. Forbidding a child to play outside or not allowing him to watch TV as a punishment works well—but only when taken together with an explanation. Make certain your child understands that although his or her wrongdoing has made you angry, you still love him or her. Use simple, direct words such as, “You hurt Peter. How would you feel if he hit you? You must never, never hurt people.” If your voice expresses strong feeling clearly, your message will carry enough weight. 【題組】48.
According to researchers, how should parents react when their child did something wrong?
(A) Ask the child not to do it again any time.
(B) Let the child know what exactly happened.
(C) Teach the child why and how to say sorry to others.
(D) Show the child how angry they are and tell him why.
49.【題組】49. What do many parents think they should do with the wrongdoer?
(A) Speak strongly and angrily to him.
(B) Hide their feelings when talking to him.
(C) Explain immediately why he was wrong.
(D) Calm themselves down before scolding him.
50.【題組】50. What could be the best title for the text?
(A) Best Ways to Stop Children’s Wrongdoings.
(B) Differences among Parents in Dealing with Children
(C) Different Ways to Deal with Children’s Wrongdoings
(D) Research on Preventing Children from Hurting Others.