1.26. In order to host the upcoming international sports event, the nation plans to construct an athletes’ village to
______ players from all over the world.
(A) accommodate (B) elaborate (C) incorporate (D) orientate
Japan has started testing its fastest-ever bullet train—capable of reaching 400 kilometers per hour—as it
continues to develop the revolutionary mode of travel.
The ALFA-X version of the Shinkansen train began three years’ worth of test runs on Friday. 41 it enters
operation sometime around 2030, it will run at speeds of up to 360 kph, comfortably making it the world’s fastest
bullet train. It will also outpace China’s Fuxing train, which runs at 10 kph slower 42 being designed with the
same top speed capabilities as the ALFA-X. The model’s futuristic design features 10 cars and a long pointed nose.
It’ll be tested on the line between the cities of Sendai and Aomori, which are about 280 kilometers 43 .
The ALFA-X marks a new stage of growth for the Shinkansen, pushing the world-renowned high speed rail
service even faster towards the future. Its testing debut comes 44 Japan’s new high-speed Shinkansen N700S
continues tests that began just over a year ago. That model will enter operation in 2020, but its maximum speeds of
300 kph—the same as other N700 series trains—will be easily surpassed by the ALFA-X. The flurry of new models
coincides 45 Japan’s preparations to host the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.
No matter what speeds the train achieves during its test runs, it won’t match the record-breaking pace of Japan
Railway’s magnetic levitation, or maglev, train which hit 603 kph on an experimental track in 2015.
【題組】41. (A) Once (B) Since (C) Though (D) While
It can be argued that music is a core function in our brains. Our brains are wired from the beginning to process
and understand music. Yet music has always been sort of a mystery, especially since it’s not typically considered
“necessary” for survival. That is reserved for the trifecta of food, sex, and sleep.
A study came out this month that adds another important piece of information as we continue to figure out
how our brain processes music. When we satisfy our desire to eat, sleep, or reproduce, our brain releases
dopamine — the “feel-good” neurochemical involved when we experience pleasure and reward. It turns out this
same chemical is released when listening to music.
A study was conducted by researchers at McGill University in Canada. The researchers used a combination of
PET (positron emission tomography) and fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imagining) techniques to scan the
brains of the eight participants as they listened to music over the course of three sessions. In addition, the
participants completed a questionnaire in which they rated how pleasurable they found the music.
It turns out that when we anticipate and then actually experience a pleasurable response while listening to
music, our brain reacts in distinct and specific ways to release the “feel-good” chemical dopamine.
From an academic standpoint, this is a fascinating study. According to the researchers, this may be the first
study to show that an abstract reward, such as listening to music, releases dopamine. We’ve traditionally considered
abstract rewards to be processed on a more cognitive level, but this study shows that our ancient reward circuits can
Additionally, it points to a shared neural network involving tangible and abstract rewards. We already know
that skills such as speech production use shared neural networks to those used to sing. This study shows the shared
neural circuitry involving how our reward circuits process both tangible and abstract rewards.
From a practical standpoint, this will not affect your average day-to-day listening. Just know that when you
experience an emotion while listening to music, your ancient reward circuits are flooding your brain with a
chemical designed to make you feel good.
【題組】46. What is the main idea of this article?
(A) Explaining the details of a research in Canada
(B) Explaining the importance of food, sleep, and sex
(C) Explaining the main purpose of neural networks
(D) Explaining the relation between dopamine and music
22.【題組】47. According to the article, which of the following statements is true?
(A) Music is the first found abstract trigger for dopamine production.
(B) The study shows that rewards are processed on a higher cognitive level.
(C) The neural networks used for speech production and singing are different.
(D) Music is proven in the experiment to be the fourth necessity for our survival.
24.【題組】49. According to the article, which of the following is NOT true about dopamine?
(A) It is also known to be the “feel-good” neurochemical.
(B) It shares neural networks with speech production and singing.
(C) It was traditionally thought to be related to food, sex, and sleep.
(D) It is evoked when we anticipate and experience pleasurable music.