(一) The impression model： The simplest & most wide-spread of the three,picturing the mind essentially as sifting & storing the external impressions to which it is receptive. 在描述經過內心本質篩選和貯藏外界印象的三者之中，銘印模式是最簡易且最廣泛延續與接受。 (二) The insight model ： Represents a radically different approach. Denies the very possibility of such conveyance. 代表著極端困難達到。否認表達的可能性。 (三) The rule model ： The shortcoming of the insight model just discussed is remedied in the rule model. Clearly emphasizes the role of principles in the exercise of cognitive judgment. 領悟模式的缺點在只是討論，而規則模式則以補強之。 規則模式清楚強調在認知評斷..